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If we want to understand Autism, we must understand sensory processing. Autistic people have brains and bodies that experience the world differently than non-autistic people and the way we process information around us means that we can struggle to filter out sensory stimuli that causes distress. E.g., light, sound, movement, smells, temperature, pain etc. There are several sensory systems:
  • sight (vision)
  • hearing (auditory)
  • smell (olfactory
  • taste (gustatory)
  • touch (tactile)
  • vestibular (movement)
  • proprioception (body position)
Two dark-skinned children playing with yellow slime
We can be hypo-sensitive in some systems (so under reactive, seeking more input), or hyper-sensitive (so overreactive, needing to escape that input). For example - some people are hypersensitive to sound whereby they may need to wear ear defenders / ear plugs, they may cover their ears when alarms go off or dogs bark, or they might struggle filtering background noise when having a conversation. But they might also be under sensitive to proprioceptive input (body position) and seek deep pressure or tight clothing to stay regulated. 
Another Autistic person may be under sensitive to sound and seek more input, so they might turn up the volume on the TV, love listening to loud music, or seek big noises. It’s very common to be hypersensitive in 1 system but hyposensitive in another – which is what confuses a lot of people. Everyone has a unique sensory profile. 
Mental health and sensory processing are linked.
If you see an Autistic child pull their hood up and put their head down in class, it could be that the noise is overwhelming and they’re trying to shut the sound out. Or a child who climbs on the roof of a building and walks along the edge, it may be because it gives them unique proprioceptive input and also a sense of control. But what happens is that adults see these children as naughty / challenging but don't understand the factors that are driving the child to do those things. The takeaway message is always think about what’s going on behind the presenting 'behaviour' rather than immediately assigning judgment onto it. We need a robust understanding of sensory processing and how this underpins Autistic experience.
Black and white photograph of a young girl covering her eyes with her hands


Also known as an Autistic meltdown

  • Release of emotions

  • Build-up of anxiety

  • Result of masking

  • Overstimulation 

What is it?

A meltdown is not a tantrum - A meltdown is outside a person’s control. A meltdown is a response to being completely overwhelmed. It is a loss of control. It can look like: crying, screaming, kicking, punching, biting, shouting. When someone is in a meltdown their ability to process spoken language drastically reduces. They may go mute and not be able to talk.

How to help someone when they're having a meltdown

  • Reduce your amount of language (or stop talking altogether)

  • If you do talk, talk slowly.

  • Don't ask questions unless they're closed questions e.g. "do you want some water? Need to walk?"

  • Offer sensory strategies that are specific to the person e.g. weighted blanket, ear defenders

  • Give them LOTS of physical space. Step back.

  • Don't touch them.

  • Use a gentle, calm tone of voice

  • Use validating statements e.g. "It's OK. I'm here"

  • Don't try to reason with the person or get them to talk to you

A young child crying inside a house looking very distressed
Sensory overload is linked to mental health, and is frequently misunderstood by mental health professionals who don't understand Autism. Autistic people often present at A&E, police and ambulances might be called to the person's home, and Autistic people may be detained under the Mental Health Act (being sectioned). They then can be placed on psychiatric wards. These environments are awful places for Autistic people for a number of reasons:
A hospital ward with three beds, representing a psychiatric ward
Bright lights, loud noises, people shouting/screaming, uncomfortable clothes, hot rooms where windows are sealed shut, restraints, seclusion, staff not respecting body autonomy, unfamiliar foods with intolerable textures, unfamiliar people, no structure, people who don't understand autism or neurodiversity, inappropriate medication.
The person is left without ANY of their sensory strategies. No predictability. Not being to access special interests. No familiarity. Routine has suddenly changed. Rights are taken away. Nobody explains anything.
Sensory Overload


Stimming means 'self-stimulatory behaviours'. Stimming is a repetitive movement of some kind. When most people think of stimming they typically visualise an Autistic person hand-flapping. But there are MANY different types of stims which people may not know about.
There are also LOTS of reasons why Autistic people stim and it can vary depending on the context. A person can have different stims for different emotions, or for different situations.
Dark skinned boy bouncing on a trampoline in front of a blue wall, representing self-regulation

to self-soothe

to self-regulate

to stimulate

to express emotion

to communicate

to process information

A red fidget spinner held by a light coloured hand
A pink and yellow lava lamp in front of a black background
Light skinned person's hands banging on a drum






Copying accents



Smelling perfume


Scented candles

Freshly cut grass



Watching a lava lamp

Moving hands in front of eyes

Star / space projector

Watching fireworks


Listening to the same song

Replaying a scene in a show

Clicking fingers

Listening to white noise


Biting fingernails

Nose picking

Playing with slime





Spinning in a chair

Bouncing your leg


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